According to research published in Frontiers in Oncology, prolonged isolated thrombocytopenia (PT), a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), appears to be associated with worse overall survival (OS) in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

Researchers conducted a single-center real-world study of patients with MDS who received allogeneic HSCT to evaluate the prognostic value of PT and define potential risk factors for PT in patients MDS following transplantation.

Between December 2007 and June 2018, a total of 303 consecutive patients with MDS (median age, 39 years; interquartile range, 28-46; 60.7% male and 39.3% female) participated in the study. After HSCT, 28.4% of the patients experienced PT.

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The researchers found that the 2-year and 5-year OS rates among patients with PT after HSCT were significantly worse than those in patients without PT (49% vs 68% and 47% vs 60%, respectively; P =.005).

Using multivariate analysis, the team demonstrated that PT was an independent risk factor associated with worse OS (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.00-2.21; P=.048).

They also found that grade II-IV acute graft vs host disease (GVHD; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.72; 95% CI, 2.20-6.33; P <.001), extensive chronic GVHD (aOR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.13-4.89; P =.020), hemorrhagic cystitis (aOR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.94-5.68; P <.001), and cytomegalovirus activation (aOR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.27-3.66; P =.004) were significant risk factors for developing PT.

“[Our] results indicate that PT predicts poor OS in MDS patients after HSCT. The identification of risk factors for PT may help clinicians to more accurately assess the prognosis and design new treatment strategies,” the researchers concluded in their report.


Wang H, Qi J, Li X, et al. Prognostic value of thrombocytopenia in myelodysplastic syndromes after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Front Oncol. Published online July 11, 2022. doi:10.3389/fonc.2022.940320