Patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) may experience increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) following treatment with blood or marrow transplantation (BMT), according to study results published in Cancer.

In this study, 734 patients who had survived for 2 or more years following BMT for NHL were surveyed regarding long-term health. Siblings of closest age to those patients who did not have a history of cancer were also surveyed for health comparisons. The emphasis was on VTE-related outcomes.

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The median follow-up duration was 8.1 years. Patients with NHL who underwent BMT showed a significantly greater risk for VTE compared with the sibling cohort. This risk was considerably higher in patients who had received allogeneic BMT (odds ratio [OR], 4.61; 95% CI, 2.70-7.86; P <.0001) than it was for siblings. In patients who received autologous BMT, the risk was also higher (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.04-2.95; P =.035) compared with the risk for siblings.

After the first 5 years following allogeneic BMT, VTE occurred with a cumulative incidence of 12.0%. This rate rose to 14.9% at 10 years after BMT. In patients who underwent autologous BMT, the 5-year cumulative incidence was 4.1% and the 10-year rate was 5.4%.

Factors associated with increased VTE risk varied by type of BMT. Elevated body mass index and history of chronic graft-versus-host disease both enhanced VTE risk with allogeneic BMT. Coronary artery disease and previous exposure to carmustine were risk factors with autologous BMT.

“Our study shows that the risk of VTE remains elevated several years after BMT for NHL, especially after allogeneic transplantation,” wrote the investigators. They recommended conducting further studies to examine the use of thromboprophylaxis in mitigating these risks.

Reference

1.     Gangaraju R, Chen Y, Hageman L, et al. Risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma surviving blood or marrow transplantation [published online August 30, 2019]. Cancer. doi:10.1002/cncr.32488