Indications for: QDOLO
Management of pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate.
Limitations of Use:
Use only if alternative treatment options (eg, non-opioid analgesics) are ineffective, not tolerated, or otherwise inadequate to provide sufficient management of pain.
Use calibrated measuring device. Use lowest effective dose for shortest duration. Individualize. ≥18yrs: initially 25mg/day; increase by 25mg increments every 3 days up to 100mg/day (25mg four times daily). Total daily dose may then be increased, as tolerated, by 50mg every 3 days up to 200mg/day (50mg four times daily). Usual dose: 50–100mg every 4–6 hours as needed; max 400mg/day (80mL). Elderly (>75yrs): max 300mg/day. Renal impairment (CrCl <30mL/min): max 100mg every 12 hours. Severe hepatic impairment: max 50mg every 12 hours. Concomitant use or discontinuation of CYP2D6 inhibitors, CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers: monitor closely and consider dose adjustments (see full labeling). Withdraw gradually (esp. if opioid-dependent), taper by ≤10–25% every 2–4 weeks.
<18yrs: not recommended.
Children <12yrs. Post-op management in children <18yrs following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. Significant respiratory depression. Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment. Known or suspected GI obstruction, including paralytic ileus. During or within 14 days of MAOIs.
Risk of medication errors. Addiction, abuse, and misuse. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS). Life-threatening respiratory depression. Accidental ingestion. Ultra-rapid metabolism of tramadol and other risk factors for life-threatening respiratory depression in children. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. Interactions with drugs affecting CYP450 isoenzymes. Risks from concomitant use with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants.
Risk of medication errors; ensure accurate dosing. Abuse potential (monitor). Life-threatening respiratory depression; monitor within first 24–72hrs of initiating therapy and following dose increases. Accidental exposure may cause fatal overdose (esp. in children). Sleep-related breathing disorders (including central sleep apnea (CSA), sleep-related hypoxemia); consider dose reduction if CSA develops. Risk of life-threatening respiratory depression and death related to ultra-rapid metabolizers of tramadol (esp. in children for post-tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy pain). Avoid in adolescents 12–18yrs with conditions associated with hypoventilation (eg, post-op status, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, severe pulmonary disease, neuromuscular disease, concomitant drugs that cause respiratory depression). COPD, cor pulmonale, decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression; monitor and consider non-opioid analgesics. Adrenal insufficiency. Head injury. Increased intracranial pressure, brain tumors; monitor. Seizure disorders. Avoid in depressed, suicidal, or addiction-prone patients; consider non-narcotic analgesics. Emotional disturbance. CNS depression. Impaired consciousness, coma, shock; avoid. Biliary tract disease. Acute pancreatitis. Hyponatremia. Hypoglycemia. Diabetes. Drug abusers. Severe hepatic (Child-Pugh Class C) or renal impairment (CrCl<30mL/min): reduce dose (see Adult). Ultra-rapid metabolizers (due to CYP2D6 polymorphism): avoid. Reevaluate periodically. Avoid abrupt cessation. Elderly (esp. >75yrs). Cachectic. Debilitated. Pregnancy; potential neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome during prolonged use. Labor & delivery, nursing mothers: not recommended.
Concomitant other forms of tramadol or carbamazepine: not recommended. Increased risk of profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (eg, non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, alcohol, other opioids); reserve concomitant use in those for whom alternative options are inadequate; limit dosages/durations to minimum required; monitor. Risk of serotonin syndrome with serotonergic drugs (eg, SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, triptans, 5-HT3 antagonists, mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol, cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone, MAOIs, linezolid, IV methylene blue); monitor and discontinue if suspected. Increased risk of seizures with SSRIs, SNRIs, anorectics, TCAs, cyclobenzaprine, promethazine, other opioids, MAOIs, naloxone, neuroleptics, and others that lower seizure threshold. Avoid concomitant mixed agonist/antagonist opioids (eg, butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine) or partial agonist (eg, buprenorphine); may reduce effects and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms. May be affected by CYP2D6 inhibitors (eg, amiodarone, quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, bupropion). Potentiated by CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, macrolides, azole antifungals, protease inhibitors). May potentiate serum amylase. Antagonized by CYP3A4 inducers (eg, rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin). May antagonize diuretics; monitor. Paralytic ileus may occur with anticholinergics. Monitor digoxin, warfarin.
Dizziness, nausea, constipation, headache, somnolence, pruritus, vomiting; respiratory depression, severe hypotension, syncope; rare: serious skin reactions or other hypersensitivity (discontinue if occur).
Generic Drug Availability: